The largest integer that can be stored in a long, i.e. a 64-bit integer is 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 in .NET. That is a very large number that will be enough for most applications out there.
However, sometimes it’s not enough and you need to handle something larger. This article on Wikipedia shows several use cases where this can occur. .NET also provides the float and double numeric types that provide much larger ranges. They won’t be integers exactly but they may suit your needs anyhow.
The .NET framework has an object called BigInteger that lets you construct arbitrarily large integers. This object resides in the System.Numerics namespace so you’ll need to reference the System.Numerics.dll library.
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