The Christians and Jews who lived in southern Spain (Andalusia) at the period of Islamic control were treated fairly under these legal concepts.
These doctrines emanated from the Maliki School of jurisprudence. Both Averroes’ father and grandfather were Maliki judges.
The following is summarized text from Wikipedia.
The Maliki school enjoyed success in the Muslim west (Andalusia and The Maghreb). Under the Umayyad, the Maliki School was promoted as the official state code of law, and Maliki judges had free rein over religious practice. In return, the Maliki jurists were expected to support and legitimize the government’s right to power. This dominance in Andalus from the Umayyads, and then the Almoravids continued, with Islamic law in the region dominated by the opinions of Malik and his students. The stricter prophetic tradition in Islam, played a lesser role; few were well versed in it. The Almoravids eventually gave way to the…
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